"Hardware" part of TV program production on campus TV station
1. Television program recording equipment: mainly cameras and video recorders. Use the lens to record life, and break the audio and video of news interviews, special lectures, and small program activities into one piece after another, and record it on tape or computer hard disk.
2. TV editing and broadcasting equipment: mainly special effects editing machine, subtitle machine, non-linear editing system, etc.
3. Television signal broadcasting and transmission equipment: mainly signal broadcasting equipment and transmission equipment.
The "software" part of the TV program production on campus TV stations mainly involves two types of personnel:
1. Reporters, editors, directors, hosts, guests, performers and other program creators: responsible for program content and program theme;
2. The technical personnel responsible for audio and video shooting, processing, editing, etc. are proficient in the functions of video and audio equipment, and mainly complete the task of expressing tasks in the form of task programs.
These two types of personnel need to cooperate with each other to complete the program production
The venue is the shooting environment during the production of the program, which is generally divided into a studio and a location. For schools, the role of the studio is relatively small, mainly because the area is not large enough and can only be suitable for broadcasting small programs such as news. The current programs are highly interactive, such as interview programs, and guests and audience. The host, guests, and audience communicated directly, with a large number of staff and a warm atmosphere. In this way, the studio needs a lot. The size of the studio and the investment are a contradiction, according to their own financial resources to decide to invest in the studio.
When it comes to equipment, as technology advances, digital technology is the direction of development. The signals recorded on the BetaCAM and DVCAM tapes are no longer analog signals, which fundamentally solves the problem of signal quality degradation in tape editing and transcription. But when it comes to post-production, it is still very time-consuming and time-consuming. The new generation of TV equipment uses the computer's hard disk to record the TV's digital signal, that is, the signal is filed, and no tape is used from shooting to broadcasting. Due to the use of computers (signalization of signals), all aspects of the production of TV programs have significantly accelerated the speed of program production. Corresponding equipment includes hard disk recorders, computer acquisition and non-editing systems, and automatic hard disk broadcast systems. When the program is broadcast, it can realize the automation of the broadcast. During the broadcast, the connection between the programs is very smooth. From the digital file to the digital file, the production is convenient, fast, and lossless, which is difficult for the tape device. With these devices, it becomes a real digital TV station.
There is a tendency for the TV communication channel to develop toward the Internet. Schools should consider this when selecting equipment. Use the established campus network as much as possible, so that televisions and computers on campus can see TV programs.
Although you have a DV and a computer, you can make general TV programs. Many schools have set up TV stations in this way, mainly broadcasting already done programs. Sometimes, it is also reluctant to use a single machine as a live broadcast program. The live broadcast picture will be restricted by conditions such as camera position, scene type, angle, etc., and the viewing effect is not good. For campus TV stations, they should have the ability to shoot in multiple cameras, not only for programming, but also for many live broadcasts. Generally, the scene is large, there are many characters, and the interaction is very strong. It is impossible to complete the task with single-camera shooting. To meet the requirements of image quality, it is necessary to switch the scene of multi-camera shooting. Therefore, school TV stations should have more professional equipment.
For the selection of equipment, it is required to be simple and practical, easy to learn and maintain, high cost performance, strong comprehensive functions, indoor and outdoor mobile use, and so on. Some other peripheral and later equipment should meet professional-level indicators.
1. Camera, video recorder:
As a campus TV station, there should be more than three standing professional-level cameras, which require good quality, convenient maintenance services, and important indicators to achieve broadcast-level performance. For professional video recorders, qualified campus TV stations should have at least one. At present, most mainstream professional cameras have high-definition component interfaces and HDMI interfaces. With the popularity of display terminal equipment LCD TVs, plasmas, and computers, it is recommended to choose high-definition equipment in advance.
2. Video stunt switcher:
The equipment necessary for multi-camera shooting, the main function is to perform on-site switching of the video signals of multiple cameras. Special effects mainly include optional background, wipe, fade in and fade out, picture in picture, keying, still, oil painting, strobe, mosaic and other functions. Due to the wide application of multimedia devices now, when recording programs, not only the AV signal of the audio and video of the camera but also the RGB signal of the laptop of the speaker or presenter, etc. No loss is what we desperately need, and it is a necessary condition for production, we recommend switching equipment with high-definition digital mixing effects.
3. TV wall:
The video wall and console are necessary equipment for the studio, which is used to monitor the images of each camera, the image of the video recorder, the effect of screen switching, and the image broadcast. The guide will operate and control the broadcast picture on the console, or record the program.
4, audio equipment:
Sound is an important part of TV programs, and there are many corresponding devices. Wired microphones, wireless microphones, interview microphones, recorders, mixing consoles, monitoring audio equipment, etc.
5. Lighting equipment:
Lighting is the key factor that determines the picture quality of TV, and it is also an important device for making TV programs. The lighting equipment of a large TV station is very large and complicated. For schools, the studio lighting can be simpler. At present, most of the three-color studio special lamps are used, which not only has good effects but also saves energy and electricity.
6. Post-production equipment:
Television stations use more tape drives for post-production equipment. Mainly because it is a more traditional operation method, the editing staff is skilled. However, these devices are relatively expensive, and are still used by schools that established TV stations in the early days. Non-linear editing machines are devices that have only appeared in recent years. At present, the price of equipment is much lower than that of magnetic tape editing machines (the price of high-end non-linear editing is relatively high). The newly-built campus TV stations mostly use non-linear editing machines for post-production of TV programs.
7. Broadcast equipment:
Generally speaking, the school is equipped with closed-circuit television. For the broadcast of the program, you can directly enter the closed-circuit television system. The broadcasting equipment of large TV stations is a huge system, with many channels, long broadcasting time, rigorous arrangement between programs, and high degree of automation. Generally speaking, it is very complicated, and it is difficult and unnecessary for campus TV stations. Schools can use a relatively simple broadcast system, because the broadcast time is not long, manual operation is enough.
In recent years, the school has set up campus LAN. It is a good way to use the LAN to transmit TV programs. In this way, whether you use a TV or a computer, you can see the programs on campus TV stations. In addition, with the development of streaming media technology and network technology, 800Kpbs bandwidth can run clear and smooth 720 Ã— 576 standard DVD quality video (audio 32Kpbs), 1.5Mpbs can run 720P high-definition video 1280 Ã— 720 (audio 64Kpbs), 2Mpbs can run high-definition 1080i video 1920 Ã— 1080, when the occupation of very little network bandwidth in the multicast environment can be the first to achieve true 1080i HD video playback.
TV program production equipment varies greatly due to different investments. High-end equipment can obtain very high-quality video and audio, providing a good hardware platform for TV program production. A good TV work can not just look at its production equipment and signals How good it is, and more importantly, the content of watching TV works, as well as ordinary devices can produce good works
The investment of campus TV stations and equipment funds account for a large part of the average intermediate-level equipment of about 400,000 yuan, which makes the school prohibitive. The biggest misunderstanding is that the equipment purchased by the school generally focuses on studio-specific equipment, and one equipment only completes one function. The connection of various functional devices is complicated and cannot be easily moved. However, live broadcast activities on campus are rarely conducted in a small studio. As a result, a lot of money is invested, but they cannot play their role. The outstanding functions of the multi-camera on-site switching and signal return TV station of the "acquisition, broadcasting, recording and editing all-in-one machine", as well as its mobile characteristics, are most suitable for school use. It can be used in the studio, and it can be easily moved. When you need to broadcast live or make a program, you can work conveniently and quickly by pulling it in the past.
Campus TV with small investment and strong functions
"Integrated Broadcasting, Recording and Editing Workstation" is very characteristic in program production. As the saying goes, it is "seven-point shooting, three-point cutting", which refers to the importance of pre-production. When shooting highly interactive programs, such as large-scale interviews, entertainment, expert lectures, etc., there are higher requirements for the broadcast picture in terms of camera position, scene, and angle. Multi-camera shooting is Recognized and the best production method. But multi-camera means high cost, which is an indisputable fact. Multi-camera shooting is not only about multiple devices, but also the complicated connection between various devices. As a result, it can only be used in fixed occasions, and the TV stations that have conditions when going out to shoot will use TV broadcast trucks. General units do not have this condition and can only shoot on a single camera. Some programs are difficult to make. Even if you use multiple cameras to shoot, you can't edit and switch on site, you can only edit in post, which will bring a lot of work to post production. Now with the "acquisition, recording, editing and editing machine" the above problem will become very simple, because it is a TV wall, special effects switcher, mixer, caption machine, video recorder, live broadcast server that the all-in-one has taken 3. The non-linear editing system is integrated into the device.
When live broadcasting or recording a program, it supports multiple cameras and can be edited on the spot to act as a TV broadcast truck. One end is connected to the video signal of the camera, and the other end is connected to the Internet line to complete the live broadcast task. Or the live broadcast signal will be transmitted back to the TV station through the wired or wireless network, and the TV station will send the signal to the TV for viewing.
The recorded programs can be recorded directly on the hard disk. Then, the recorded programs will be transmitted to the TV station through the Internet in the form of files. After on-site editing and recording, the program has basically taken shape. Post-production can greatly reduce the workload. During the shooting process, the device can not only save the on-site edited signals, but also mix high-definition digital signals such as RGB and AV signals. At the same time, the signals of each camera can also be saved separately. With the original material, you can edit it as you like in the later stage (multi-cam editing system). This platform supports various non-linear editing software, making post-production more handy. High-quality programs are produced on the spot from production to post-editing, saving a lot of production time. This not only speeds up the production of the program, but also greatly improves the quality of the program.
Campus TV station equipment list
Unit price (yuan)
Total price (yuan)
SONY NP970 7-hour battery
Audio-technicaAT8035 / AT835b
All-in-one recording and editing machine
(HD digital mixing)
KD-LCC900XE dual Xeon quad-core CPU, memory above 4GFBD, dual Gigabit network interface, hard disk above 1000GSATA, 8-screen highlight display, 6-channel high-definition digital mixing stunt and mixer, subtitle input keyboard, pure aluminum magnesium The hardware design of the alloy portable all-in-one machine and the high-definition stream coding and recording and broadcasting system; the four original signals are recorded in high definition at the same time, and multi-camera editing is supported
(Including broadcast-grade non-linear editing system)
Various connector wires
1) Two professional microphone cables of 30 meters
2) Two 20-meter professional video cables
3) One professional audio cable of 40 meters
4) 2 audio and video cables of 15 meters
5) Other connectors
Live on demand
Kaidi Live VOD System V2.0
Kaidi portable KD-LCC900XE portable recording and editing machine,
Beijing Kaidi Xingye Network Technology Co., Ltd.
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